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In this section, you can find the resources we have used to provide data and information in our calculators, tips and topic sections. Each resource is linked to (a) certain topic(s). We have used a diverse set of resources, varying from scientific studies to practice based research.

10 Green Energy Hosting Services for your Business 2014

CloudTweaks article by Daniel Price on 10 green energy hosting services.

Cloud Storage

Greenpeace Clicking Green Report 2017

Until 2017, Greenpeace has published several reports on greening online behaviour under the name Clicking Green. Unfortunately they stopped creating these reports after 2017.

Best Practice

The Carbon Cost of an Email 2018

Carbon Literacy Project article on the carbon cost of an email by Emma Charlotte Richards


Where Are the World's Cloud Data Centers and Who is Using Them? 2018

TeleGeography article by Patrick Christian investigating global Cloud Data Centres locations and usage

Cloud Storage

How smartphones are heating up the planet 2018

The Conversation article by Lotfi Belkhir on the impact of smartphones on the environment

Smart Devices

Which Programming Languages Use the Least Electricity? 2018

TheNewStack Article by David Cassel on the energy demands of programming languages

Best Practice Cloud Storage Smart Devices

How to Spend Way Less Time on Email Every Day 2019

Harvard Business Review article by Matt Plummer with information on email behaviour

Scientific Email

Smart Home – Energieverbrauch und Einsparpotenzial der intelligenten Geräte 2019

Research paper on energy usage of smart home devices (in German)

Scientific Smart Devices

Music consumption has unintended economic and environmental costs 2019

Research by Dr. Kyle Device and Dr. Matt Brennan on the environmental and economical costs of music consumption

Scientific Audio streaming

Why data centres are the new frontier in the fight against climate change 2019

Computerworld article by Charlotte Trueman on the environmental effects of the data centre industry

Cloud Storage

How to Dispose of e-Waste in the Datacentre Industry 2019

Article by Server Room Environments (company) on ways to dispose datacentre e-Waste.

Cloud Storage

Bitcoin mining may be pumping out as much CO2 per year as Kansas City 2019

MIT Technology Review article by James Temple analysing the environmental impact of cryptocurrency mining


Hoe word je esporter? 2019

Dutch blog article by Patrick Huiskens explaining what is needed to become a professional esporter

Online Gaming

Live Game Streaming Market to Grow 2019

BusinessWire report on the development of the Online Gaming Market 2019-2025

Online Gaming

The thought experiment: What is the carbon footprint of an email? 2020

BBC Science Focus article analysing the carbon footprint of emailing


Email Attachments Generate Nearly 6,000 Unnecessary and Unsecure Files per Employee per Year 2020

Article by Alex Panagides containing information on inbox compositions.


The Hidden Costs of Streaming Music 2020

New Yorker article by Alex Ross on music streaming

Audio streaming

The Hidden Cost Of Music 2020

Article by Chien Tat Low on the hidden costs of music consumption

Audio streaming

The green behind the cloud 2020

Accenture article by Peter Lacy on green cloud hosting developments

Cloud Storage

Recalibrating global data center energy-use estimates 2020

Science article by Eric Masanet et al., on data centre energy-use estimates

Scientific Cloud Storage

Uncovering the Environmental Impact of Cloud Computing 2020 article by Adele Beardmore exploring the environmental impact of cloud computing and opportunities to improve

Best Practice Cloud Storage

The Unreasonable Ecological Cost of #CryptoArt 2020

In-depth analysis of the implications of blockchain based art works by Memo Akten


The importance of the lithium-ion battery for future data centres 2020

Article by Nick Forrester on the effects of batteries in data centres.

Cloud Storage

The carbon footprint of streaming video: fact-checking the headlines 2020

International Energy Agency (IEA) article by George Kamiya factchecking the news on the environmental impact of video streaming

Video Streaming

A framework to estimate emissions from virtual conferences 2021

Research by Grant Faber published in the International Journal of Environmental Studies

Scientific Video Conferencing

How to block social media apps from yourself to stop distractions and be more productive 2021

Businerss Insider article by Chrissy Montelli on social media blockers

Social Media

Video conference CO2 emissions quantified in new study 2021

Summary of academic study by James Lynch on the actions leading to reduced video conferencing environmental impact

Video Conferencing

How to unsubscribe from all your newsletters at once 2021

Popular Science article by David Nield on unsubscribing from newsletters


Social Network Usage & Growth Statistics: How Many People Use Social Media in 2022? 2021

Analysing article full of social media statistics with elaborate source documentation by Brian Dean

Social Media

Digital carbon footprint 2021

Digital Carbon footprint calculator developed by Jens Gröger, researcher at the Oeko Institut


Tackling the Carbon Footprint of Streaming Media 2021

Tackling the Carbon Footprint of Streaming Media is a research project by the Simon Fraser University and supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Knowledge Synthesis grant program, “Living within the Earth’s Carrying Capacity”

Video Streaming Scientific

The overlooked environmental footprint of increasing Internet use 2021

Scientific article published in Resources, Conservation and Recycling Journal by Renee Obringer et al on the environmental footprint of data centers and internet use

Scientific Cloud Storage Video Conferencing Searching Email Smart Devices

Turning Off Your Camera In Video Calls Could Cut Carbon Emissions By 96% 2021

Euronews Green article by Rosie Frost highlighting recent study results on the impact of video in video calls

Best Practice Video Conferencing

Statista 2021

Business Data Platform collecting information on total amounts and categorical distributions


Why Are Email Files so Large 2021

Lifewire article by Heinz Tschabitscher with average size information of emails.


The Surprising Reality of How Many Emails Are Sent Per Day in 2021 2021

Techjury article by Darina Lynkova containing information on where emails are read.


Cleanfox 2021

Tool to remove and block newsletters. Contains research on the spread of newsletters.


Greenhouse gas emission intensity of electricity generation by country 2021

European Environment Agency (EEA) research on emissions generated by electricity in Europe


Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index 2021

The Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index provides the latest estimate of the total energy consumption of the Bitcoin network.


From One Edge to the Other: Exploring Gaming’s Rising Presence on the Network 2021

Paper exploring possible futures where growth of gaming services continues.

Scientific Online Gaming

The carbon footprint of our digital lifestyles 2021

Compilation post by researcher Jens Gröger on research concerning digital lifestyles and the impacts of using search engines.

Scientific Searching

The surprising amount of data Spotify uses 2021

Article by Kristen Hubby on audio streaming

Audio streaming

Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2022

US department of Energy publishes research and many practical advices for citizens on the topic of using energy efficiently

Smart Devices Best Practice

Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index 2022

The Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index provides the latest estimate of the total energy consumption of the Bitcoin network


Bitcoin emissions alone could push global warming above 2°C 2022

Nature article by Camilo Mora et al. plotting the environmental implications of projected Bitcoin blockchain usage


Green NFTs 2022

Bounty For More Ecologically Friendly NFTs (Non-fungible Tokens), an initiative by Artnome Digital Art and Art Analytics



CNBC news article announcing the intent of Ethereum to switch Blockchain models from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS) in 2022, potentially bringing down blockchains footprint massively.

Blockchain 2022 was designed to share the best available information about the energy use and environmental impact of the growing Proof-of-Work (PoW) based CryptoArt and NFT markets


KWH to CO2 calculator Europe 2022

Calculator converting kWh to kg of Carbon released based on Greenhouse gas reporting from the European Environmental Agency (EEA) as well as the British Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Best Practice Scientific

Global social media statistics research summary 2022 2022

A compilation of the latest social media statistics of consumer adoption and usage of social networking platforms by Dave Chaffey

Social Media

Lilo search with substance 2022

A French search engine a search engine that uses their money raised though tracking and advertising to fund social and environmental projects


Ecosia 2022

The search engine that plants trees


Website Carbon Calculator 2022

How is your website impacting the planet?

Best Practice

Think Digital Green 2022

German initiative with similar goals and values as E-Missions

Best Practice

The Shift Project 2022

The Shift Project is a French think tank advocating the shift to a post-carbon economy

Best Practice Scientific

Wij zijn het Web (NL) 2023

Within the Theme page In 'We are the web', NEMO kennislink shares insights and best practices related to the wonderful world of the web and internet, including a dedicated section on being online eco-conscious.

Best Practice

Climate Carbon Calculator 2024

A carbon calculator, including calucalation for eclectronic devices and hours of digital use, developed by the Agence de la transition transition (ADEME), and CarboneAssociation (ABC).